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Unit 2: When did it happen

 

 

colosseumathens-greece1url

 

 

moveaheadplusunit2

 

Vocabulary

  • Decade (n.) a period of ten years.
  • Century (n.) a period of 100 years.
  • Event (n.) a happening usually an important one.
  • Broadcast (n.) a single radio or television presentation.
  • Broadcast (v.) to send out or give radio or television presentation.
  • Sequence (n.) a group of things arranged in an order, especially following one another time.
  • Exploration (n.) the travel into or through a place for the purpose of discovery.
  • Pole (n.) either end of an imaginary straight line (axis) around which a solid round mass turns. Especially, the most northern and southern points of the surface of the earth.
  • Polar (adj.) of, near, like, or coming from lands near the north or south poles.
  • Take place (v.) happen.
  • Involve in (v.) to cause someone to become connected or concerned.
  • Victory (n.) act of winning or state of having won in war or in any kind of struggle. Victorious (adj.) victoriously (adv.)
  • Cave (n.) a deep natural hallow place either underground or in the side of a cliff or hill.
  • Archaeologist (n.) the person who studies the buried remains of ancient times such as houses, pots, tools, and weapons.
  • Famous (adj.) well known.
  • Discover (v.) to find something existing but known before. Discovery (n.) discoverer (n.)
  • Invent (n.) to make up, think of, or produce for the first time.(didn’t exist before) invention (n.) inventor (n.)
  • Amateur (adj.) a person without experience or skill in a particular art or sport. A person who performs plays , takes part in sports, takes photographs for enjoyment and without being paid for it.
  • Mature (adj.) a fully grown and developed.
  • Professional (adj.) doing for money what others do for enjoyment. Professionally (adv.)
  • Professional (n.) a person who earns money by practicing a particular skill or sport.
  • Illustration (n.) an example which explains the meaning of something.         A picture especially in a book.
  • Painting (n.) the art or practice of painting pictures.
  • Painter (n.) a person whose job is painting houses, rooms. A person who paints pictures.
  • Paint (v.) to make a picture of somebody or something using paint.
  • Paint (n.) liquid colouring matter which can be put or spread on a surface to make it a certain colour.
  • Civilization (n.) a stage of human social development especially one with a high level of art, religion, science, government and a written language.                 The type of advanced society of a particular time or place.
  • Amazing (adj.) causing great surprise or wonder because of quantity or quality.
  • Shore (n.) the land along the edge of a large stretch of water.(sea or lake).
  • Bank (n.) the land along the edge of a river.
  • Coast= seaside (n.) the whole area bordering the sea. Near the sea but not necessarily right on the edge.
  • Beach (n.) the part of the shore that is covered by sand or smooth stones.
  • Beach (n.) the part of the shore that is covered by sand or smooth stones.
  • Particular (adj.) special, unusual, worthy of notice.
  • Particularly (adv.) specially, in a way that is special and different from others.
  • Ancient (adj.) in or of times long ago. Is used for the people or products of civilizations of the distant past.
  • Generation (n.) a single stage in the development of a family or the average period of time (about 30 years) between each stage. All people of the same age.
  • Separate (v.) to set or move apart to keep apart, to keep apart, mark a division between.
  • Last for (v.) to remain in use in good condition, or unweakened.
  • Birthplace (n.) the place of the act or time of being born of coming into the world.
  • Durable (adj.) long lasting.         Durability (n.)
  • Develop (v.) grow, increase or become more complete. Developed (adj.)
  • Development (n.) the act or action of developing or the state of being developed.
  • Overflow (v.) to flow the edges, to go beyond limits.
  • Deposit (v.) to put down.
  • Strip (n.) a narrow piece of land, paper or cloth.
  • Soil (n.) the top covering of the earth in which plants grow.
  • Fertile (adj.) able to produce or grow many young, fruits or seeds. ≠
  • Irrigation (n.) supply water to dry land.
  • Route (n.) a way planned or followed from one place to another.
  • Supply (n.) an amount.
  • Provide with (v.) to supply something needed or useful.
  • Transportation (n.) the act of transporting or of being transported.             A means or system of carrying passengers or goods from one place to another.
  • Preserved (adj.) kept in good condition for a long time by some special treatment.
  • Magnificent (adj.) great, grand.
  • Structure (n.) the way in which parts are formed into a whole.
  • Gigantic(adj.) unusually large in amount or size.
  • Democratic (adj.) of, related to or favouring democracy. Favouring and practicing social quality.
  • Government (n.) the action , form, or method of ruling.
  • Revolution (n.) a time of great social change especially the changing of a ruler and/ or political system by force.
  • Revolutionary (adj.) completely new and different. Connected with revolution being caused a revolution.
  • Achievement (n.) something important that you achieve. When you succeed in doing or getting what you have worked for.
  • Crumble (v.) to break apart into small pieces or make something do this. To lose power, become weak, or fail.
  • Tribe (n.) a group of people who have the same race, language and customs and who live together in the same area.
  • Overthrown (v.) to use force to remove a leader or government from power.
  • War-like (adj.) countries or people are eager to fight wars or often fight wars.
  • Spectacular (adj.) very impressive or exciting.
  • Community (n.) a small area or town and the people who live in it.
  • Conquer (v.) to win control of a country or defeat an enemy by fighting a war.
  • Control (v.) to make someone or something do what you want or make them work in particular way.
  • Empire (n.) a group of countries that are controlled by one ruler or government.
  • Emperor (n.) the head of an empire.
  • Vast (adj.) very large and wide, great in size or amount.
  • Legal (adj.) allowed or made by law, lawful.
  • Illegal (adj.) not legal, against the law.
  • Inhabitant (n.) a person who lives in a particular place.
  • Historian (n.) a person who studies and/or writes about history.
  • Resist (v.) to oppose, stand or fight against (force). To remain unchanged or unharmed by.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Write down dates that are important in your personal history.

  • The date you were born.

…………………………………………………………………………..

  1.  
  • The day you started school.

…………………………………………………………………………..

 

  • The day you travelled to another country for the first time.

…………………………………………………………………………..

  1.  
  • The day you had your biggest academic success.

…………………………………………………………………………..

  1.  
  • An important day in your country’s history.

…………………………………………………………………………..

  1.  
  • The day you had your biggest sporting success.

…………………………………………………………………………..

  1.  
  • The day your country had a big sporting success.

…………………………………………………………………………..

 

Read the information below. In one or two sentences, explain how each of these people did something that changed history.

Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Alexander the Great became King of Macedonia, a state in northern , at the age of 20. Over the next twelve years, Alexander took his army east, conquering the countries now known as Turkey, Northern Syria, Afghanistan, Iran and Paakistan. in 323, he died suddenly of a fever at the age of 33.

 

Joan Of Arc (1412-1413)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 In 1429, the English army had invaded North France. A 17-year-old girl called Joan of Arc persuaded te French king to allow her to lead his army against the English. She succeeded in defeating the English. However, she was eventually captured by them, and burnt as a witch.

 

 

      Nelson Mandela (1412-1413)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In early 1950s, the all-white government of South Africa established apatheid, a system that separated white people from black people. Nelson Mandela, a black South Africa lawyer, became deputy president of an organisation that resisted apartheid. In 1964, he was imprisoned for life. When he came out of prison in 1990, mandela reached an agreement with the white government to end apatheid peacefully. In1994, Mandela became president of a multi-racial government. Mandela's presidency ended in June 1999.

 

 

 

Student Book P.18

 

 

  • Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.)
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  1.  
  2.  
  • Joan of Arc (1412-1413)
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  1.  
  • Nelson Mandela (born 1918)
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar

 

The Past Tenses

The Past Simple Tense

 

Formation

 

 

   يتكون الماضي البسيط من المصدر بدو to مضافا إليه d أو ed . وهناك أفعال شاذة يتم تصريفها

   تصريف خاص . الماضي البسيط هو التصريف الثاني للفعل.

                                                 v.inf. + d or ed

Ex) move: moved           wash: washed        speak: spoke     buy: bought

* إذا كان الفعل ينتهي بحرف ساكن مسبوق بحرف متحرك يضاعف الحرف الساكن في الماضي.

Ex) Travel: travelled                       stop: stopped

* إذا كان الفعل ينتهي بـy مسبوقة بحرف ساكن تحول الـy الى I و يضاف إليها ed .

Ex) study: studied                           cry: cried

* إذا كان الفعل ينتهي بـy مسبوقة بحرف متحرك تبقى كما هي و يضاف إليها ed .

Ex) play: played                               stay: stayed

 

 

 

 

Usage

1-   للتعبير عن حدث وقع و انتهى في الماضي.

* He visited Luxor last week.

2-   للتعبير عن عادة في الماضي.

* The Ancient Egyptians worshipped the sun.

 

 

 

key words

   في الماضي         in the past   أمس            yesterdayالماضي      last

         ago ذات مرة        onceفي قديم الزمن      in the ancient times

 

 

Negative

  • في حالة نفي الماضي البسيط نقوم باستخدام did notأوdidn’t+ v.inf.

Ex) I didn’t go to Egypt last year.

 

 

 

Conjugation Of Irregular Verbs  تصريف الافعال الشاذة

Past Participle

Past

Present

Verb

arisen

awoke

born

borne

beaten

become

befallen

begun

bent

bet

bidden

bound

bitten

bled

blown

broken

bred

 

brought

broadcast

built

burnt

burst

bought

caught

chosen

clung

come

cost

cut

crept

dealt

dug

done

arose

awoke

bore

bore

beat

became

befell

began

bent

bet

bade

bound

bit

bled

blew

broke

bred

 

brought

broadcast

built

burnt

burst

bought

caught

chose

clung

came

cost

cut

crept

dealt

dug

did

arise

awake

bear

bear

beat

become

befall

begin

bend

bet

bid

bind

bite

bleed

blow

break

breed

 

bring

broadcast

build

burn

burst

buy

catch

choose

cling

come

cost

cut

creep

deal

dig

do

ينهض / ينشأ

يستيقظ

يلد

يحمل/ يتحمل

يضرب / يهزم

يصبح / يصير

يحدث لـ

 

يبدأ / يبتدئ

يلوي / يثني

يراهن

يأمر / يقول

يربط

يعض

ينزف

يهب / ينفخ

يكسر

يربي

 

يحضر

يذيع

يبني

يحرق / يحترق

ينفجر

يشتري

يمسك

يختار

يتعلق

يأتي / يحضر

يكلف / يساوي

يقطع

يزحف

يتعامل

يحفر

يفعل

 

 

 

Past Participle

Past

Present

Verb

Drawn

Dreamt

Drunk

Driven

Dwelt

Eaten

Fallen

Fed

Felt

Foretold

Fought

Found

Fled

Flung

Flown

Forbidden

Forgotten

Forgiven

Frozen

Got

Given

Gone

Ground

Grown

Hung

Had

Heard

Hidden

Hit

Held

Hurt

Kept

Knelt

Known

Laid

Led

Drew

Dreamt

Drank

Drove

Dwelt

Ate

Fell

Fed

Felt

Foretold

Fought

Found

Fled

Flung

Flew

Forbade

Forgot

Forgave

Froze

Got

Gave

Went

Ground

Drew

Hung

Had

Heard

Hid

Hit

Held

Hurt

Kept

Knelt

Knew

Laid

Led

Draw

Dream

Drink

Drive

Dwell

Eat

Fall

Feed

Feel

Foretell

Fight

Find

Flee

Fling

Fly

Forbid

Forget

Forgive

Freeze

Get

Give

Go

Grind

Grow

Hang

Have

Hear

Hide

Hit

Hold

Hurt

Keep

Kneel

Know

Lay

Lead

يرسم / يجر / يسحب

يحلم

يشرب

يجر/يسوق

يسكن

يأكل

يقع / يسقط

يطعم / يغذي

يشعر بـ

يتنبأ بـ

 

يحارب

يجد / يعثر على

يهرب

يقذف بقوة

يطير

يمنع

ينسي

يعفو عن

يتجمد

يحصل على

يعطي

يذهب

يطحن

ينمو / يزرع

يعلق

 

يملك

يسمع

يختبئ / يخبئ

يضرب

يتسع لـ / يمسك

يؤذي / يضر

يحفظ / يصون

يركع

يعلم / يعرف

يضع

يقود

 

 

Past Participle

Past

Present

Verb

Leapt

Learnt

Left

Lent

Let

Lain

Lit

Lost

Made

Meant

Met

Mistaken

Misunderstood

Outrun

Overcome

Overthrown

Paid

Put

Read

Ridden

Rung

Risen

Run

Said

Seen

Sought

Sold

Sent

Set

Sewn

Shaken

Shed

Shone

Shed

Shown

Shrunk

Shut

 

Leapt

Learnt

Left

Lent

Let

Lay

Lit

Lost

Made

Meant

Met

Mistook

Misunderstood

Outran

Overcame

Overthrew

Paid

Put

Read

Rode

Rang

Rose

Ran

Said

Saw

Sought

Sold

Sent

Set

Sewed

Shook

Shed

Shone

Shot

Showed

Shrank

Shut

Leap

Learn

Leave

Lend

Let

Lie

Light

Lose

Make

Mean

Meet

Mistake

Misunderstand

Outrun

Overcome

Overthrow

Pay

Put

Read

Ride

Ring

Rise

Run

Say

See

Seek

Sell

Send

Set

Sew

Shake

Shed

Shine

Shoot

Show

Shrink

Shut

يقفز

يتعلم

يترك

يقرض / يسلف

يدع / يؤجر

يرقد

يشعل / يضئ

يفقد

يصنع / يجعل

 

يعني / يقصد

يقابل

يخطئ

يسئ الفهم

يتفوق على

يتغلب على

يطيح بـ

يدفع

يضع

يقرأ

يركب

يدق

يشرق

يجري

يقول

يرى

يبحث عن

يبيع

 

يرسل

يغرب

يحيك / يخيط

يهز

يذرف / يسفك

يلمع / يضئ

يطلق

يبين

يتقلص

يغلق

Past Participle

Past

Present

Verb

Sung

Sunk

Sat

Slain

Slept

Slid

Smelt

Sown

Spoken

Spelt

Spent

Spilt

Spun

Split

Spoilt

Spread

Sprung

Stood

Stolen

Stuck

Stung

Stridden

Struck

Sworn

Swept

Swollen

Swum

Swung

Taken

Taught

Torn

Told

Thought

Thrown

Thrust

Trodden

Undergone

Understood

Sang

Sank

Sat

Slew

Slept

Slid

Smelt

Sowed

Spoke

Spelt

Spent

Spilt

Spun

Spilt

Spoilt

Spread

Sprang

Stood

Stole

Stuck

Stung

Strode

Struck

Swore

Swept

Swelled

Swam

Swung

Took

Taught

Tore

Told

Thought

Threw

Thrust

Trod

Underwent

Understood

Sing

Sink

Sit

Slay

Sleep

Slide

Smell

Sow

Speak

Spell

Spend

Spill

Spin

Split

Spoil

Spread

Spring

Stand

Steal

Stick

Sting

Stride

Strike

Swear

Sweep

Swell

Swim

Swing

Take

Teach

tear

tell

think

throw

thrust

tread

undergo

understand

يغني

يغوص / يغرق

يجلس

يذبح

ينام

ينزلق

يشم

يبذر

يتكلم

يتهجى

يصرف

يسكب

يغزل

يشق

يفسد

ينشر

يقفز

يقف

يسرق

 

يلصق

يلدغ

يخطو

يخبط / يضرب

يقسم

يكنس

يتورم

يسبح

يتأرجح

 

يأخذ

يعلم

يمزق

يخبر

يظن / يعتقد

يقذف

يدفع

يدوس / يطأ

يمر بـ / يقاسي

يفهم

 

 

Past Participle

Past

Present

Verb

Undertaken

Woke

Worn

Woven

Wept

Won

Wound

Withdrawn

Withstood

Wrung

written

Undertook

Woke

Wore

Wove

Wept

Won

Wound

Withdrew

Withstood

Wrung

wrote

Undertake

Wake

Wear

Weave

Weep

Win

Wind

Withdraw

Withstand

Wring

write

يتعهد بـ

يستيقظ

يرتدي / يلبس

ينسج

يبكي

يربح / يكسب

يلف / يربط

ينسحب

يتحمل

يعصر

يكتب

 

 

 

The Past Continous Tense

 

Formation

  V.to Be(at past)+Gerund

         Was,were+ v.ing

Ex) Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.

  • يستعمل الماضي المستمر للتعبير عن حدث كان مستمر في الماضي عند وقوع حدث اخر

Ex) While I was playing tense, I fell down.

 

 

Usage

  • يستعمل للتعبير عن حدثين مختلفين كانا يحدثان في نفس الوقت.

Ex)While I was driving my car, my friend was sleeping.

As, while, when

 

 

 

key words

                         Ex) As I was studying, I heared a cry.

                         Ex) The pupil was doing the exercise when the bell rang.

      

 

Notice ملاحظة

 

   * يأتي بعدas,while الماضي المستمر اما الفعل الرئيسي فيكون في الماضي البسيط.

Ex) I saw him as I was driving to the station.

           * يأتي بعد When الماضي البسيط أما الفعل الرئيسي فيكون في الماضى المستمر.

Ex) What were you doing when I met you?

 

Negative

* في حالة النفي نضع Not بين V.to Be وV.ing                                                  

                                                               Was

                                                                                             +not + V.ing

                                                                Were

Ex)He wasn't driving the car when you were studying.

 

 

 

Notice ملاحظة

                               * بعض الافعال لا تستخدم في الازمنة المستمرة و هي:

يرجو/ يأمل                        Hope

يفهم                    Understand

يلاحظ                            Notice

يتذكر                    Remember

ينسى                           Forget

يعني                              Mean

يهتم                                Care

يظهر                           Appear

يتكون من                     Consist

يحتوي على                   Contain

يبدو                               Seem

يملك                                 Own

يمتلك                         Possess

يخص                           Belong

يتكلف                              Cost

يفكر                              Think

يرى                                   See

يسمع                                Hear

يشعر/ يحس                         Feel

يشم                                Smell

يتذوق                              Taste

يحب                                 Like

يكره                             Dislike

يحب                               Love

يكره                                Hate

يخاف                               Fear

يريد                               Want

يتمنى                             Wish

يرغب                           Desire

يحتاج                             Need

يفضل                           Prefer

يعرف                           Know

 

Ex) This book belongs to me.         {Not} This book is belonging to me.

Ex) He wished to be a doctor.         {Not} He was wishing to be a doctor.

 

The Past Perfect Tense

 

 

Formation

                              Had+P.P

        

Usage

                  Ex)The teacher gave back the books that he had corrected.

* يستعمل الماضي التام للتعبير عن حدث تم في الماضي قبل حدث ماضي اخر.

                             Ex)I ate the food which I had bought.

 

 

key words

                            after, before

                       Ex) After he had finished his work, he went out.

                       Ex) The train had left before I reached the station.

 

 

 

Notice ملاحظة

           * يأتي بعد after الماضي التام أما الفعل الرئيسي فيكون في الماضي البسيط.

         * أما before فيأتي بعدها الماضي البسيط و يكون الفعل الرئيسي الماضي التام                                  

 

 

 

Negation

* في حالة النفي نقوم بوضع notبين Hadو التصريف الثالث للفعلP.P

                     Ex)It was my first time in an aeroplane. I was nervous                                        

                             because I had not flown before.

 

Student Book P.19     Singular or Plural

 

 

a) We use some nouns only in the plural.

* For example: trousers, jeans, pyjamas, scissors, glasses/spectacles

b) You can use a pair of ... with these words.

* For example: I need some new trousers OR I need a new pair of trousers.

c) We don’t often use the plural of person (persons).Instead we use people.

* For example: He is a nice person.

                         They are nice people.

d) Some singular nons are often used with a plural verb.

* For example:government, staff, team, family, audience, committe, police.

e) some times we can use them as singular.

*For example: The government wants to reduce the taxes.

                           The government want to reduce the taxes.

f) These nouns end in -s but they are not usually plural.

* For example: mathematics, physics, economics, gymenastics, news.

g) Some times we use a plural noun with a singular verb. We do this when we     talk about a sum of money, a period of time, a distance atc.

* For example: Five thousand pounds(=it) was stolen in the robbery.(not are)

                         Three years (=it)is a long time to be without a job.(not are)

 

Prefixes

Prefix is a place at the beginning of a word to change the meaning of that word.

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

Pre-

 

 

Anti-

 

 

Re-

 

 

Dis-

 

 

Un-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Match each prefix with its meaning and then try to think of a word that starts with that prefix.

One of them means “before” , two of them mean “not” or indicate the opposite of a word, one of them means “do” again, one of them means “against”

 

Exercise