Unit 7: Across Cultures

 


 

Vocabulary

  • Across (adv./prep.) from one side of something to the other side. On or towards the opposite side of something.
  • Culture (n.) the art, beliefs, behavior, ideas of a particular society or group of people.
  • Congratulations (n.) spoken used to congratulate someone.
  • Teenager (n.) someone who is between 13 and 19 years old.
  • Pen-friend (n.) someone living in another country who you write letters to and are friendly with but who you don’t meet.
  • Apologies (n.) something that you say or write to show that you are sorry.
  • Relate to (v.) to be connected or to show that two or more things are connected. To be concerned with something.
  • Cultural (adj.) relating to a particular society and its way of life.
  • Problem (n.) a difficult situation that you have to deal with.
  • Celebrate (v.) to do something special because it is a special occasion or because something good has happened.
  • Celebration (n.) an occasion or party when you celebrate something.
  • Pass examination (v.) to succeed in a test or examination.
  • Head of state (n.) president.
  • President (n.) the official leader of a country that does not have a king or a queen.
  • Presidential (adj.) relating to the president of a country.
  • Palace (n.) a large house where a king or queen lives.
  • Receive (v.) to get or be given something.
  • National (adj.) relating to the whole of a country, rather than to part of it.
  • Monument (n.) a large structure that is built to remind people of an important event or famous person.
  • Imagine (v.) to think of what something would be like if it happened.
  • Difference (n.) the way in which one person or thing is different from another.
  • Possible (adj.) something that is possible may happen or may be true.
  • Impossible (adj.) not able to be done or to happen.
  • University (n.) a place where students study a subject at a high level in order to get degrees.
  • E-mail (n.) electronic mail, a system for sending messages by computer.
  • Habit (n.) something that you do regularly and usually without thinking.
  • Gift (n.) something that you give to someone as a present.
  • Present (n.) something that you give to someone for example at chrismas.
  • Exactly (adv.) used to say an amount or number is completely correct. Used to emphasize what you are saying.
  • Appropriate (adj.) suitable for a particular time, situation or purpose.
  • Tradition (n.) a custom, belief, or way of doing something that has existed for a long time.
  • Common (adj.) existing in large numbers or happening often, belonging to or shared by two or more people or thing.
  • Circular (adj.) shaped like a circle.
  • Temple (n.) a building where people in some religions go to pray, sing.
  • God (n.) a male being who is believed to have power over some part of nature or the world.
  • Goddess (n.) a female being who is believed to have power over some part of nature or the world.
  • Represent (v.) to speak and do things for someone else because they have asked you to.
  • Candle (n.) a stick of wax that you burn to produce light.
  • Glow (v.) to shine with a gentle steady light, to produce a red light and heat without flames.
  • Medieval (adj.) produced in or connected with the middle ages.
  • Evil (n.) something that is very bad and has a very cruel or harmful effect.
  • Spirit (n.) a living thing without a physical body such as angel or ghost.
  • Protection (n.) when someone or something is protected or something that protects you.
  • Protect (n.) to prevent someone or something from being from being harmed or damaged.
  • Century (n.) a period of 100 years, used especially in giving dates.
  • Social (adj.) relating to human society and its organization, or the quality of people’s lives.
  • Gathering (n.) a group of people meeting together for a particular purpose.
  • Originally (adv.) in the beginning.
  • Typical (adj.) having the usual features or qualities of a particular thing, person, or group.
  • Message (n.) a spoken or written piece of information that you send to another person.
  • Flag (n.) a piece of cloth with a coloured picture or pattern on it used as the sign of a country or as a signal.
  • Butter (n.) a solid yellow food made from cream that you spread on bread or use in cooking.
  • Particular (adj.) special or important enough to mention separately.
  • Particularly (adv.) much more than usual, especially , much more than other people.
  • Bump (v.) to hit or knock against something especially by accident.
  • Stick (n.) along thin piece of wood especially one that has fallen from a tree.
  • Blindfold (v.) to cover someone’s eyes with a piece of cloth so that they can’t see.
  • Pull (v.) to hold something firmly and move it towards you or move it in a particular direction.
  • Avoid (v.) to miss or keep away from, especially on purpose.
  • Margarine (n.) a food made from animal or vegetable fats, used instead of butter on bread or in baking.
  • Greasy (adj.) covered with or containing grease, slippery.
  • Grease(n.) a thick oily substance.
  • Slippery (adj.) difficult to hold or to stand on, drive on.
  • Indicate (v.) to point at, draw attention to.
  • Hang (v.) to fix or be fixed at the top so that the lower part is free.
  • Ceiling (n.) the inner surface of the top of a room.
  • Hit (v.) to strike, to give a blow to.
  • Break (v.) to cause to separate into parts suddenly or violently, but not by cutting or tearing.
  • Collect (v.) to bring or gather together.
  • Scramble (v.) to move or climb quickly especially over a rough or steep surface.
  • In charge of (n.) responsible.
  • Language (n.) the system of human expression by means of words in speech or writing.
  • Intensive (adj.) which gives a lot of attention or action to a small amount of something.
  • Instruction (n.) the act or action of instructing, teaching.
  • During (prep.) all through a length of time.
  • Entertainment (n.) the act of entertaining, amusement, interest.
  • Occasional (adj.) happening from time to time, not regular.
  • Excursion (n.) a short journey made for pleasure, usually by several people together.
  • Historic (adj.) important in history.
  • Interest (n.) a readiness to give attention.
  • Approach (v.) to come near or nearer to.
  • Approach (n.) a manner or method of along something.
  • Schedule (n.) a time table of things to be done, dealt with.
  • Trip (n.) short journey from one place to another.
  • Suggest (v.) to tell someone your ideas about what should be done. To say that someone or something would be suitable for a particular purpose.
  • Announce (v.) to officially tell people about something so that everyone knows. To say something in a loud or angry way.
  • Climb (v.) to move up or down towards the top of something, to move somewhere using your hands and feet.
  • Muddy (adj.) covered with mud or containing mud.
  • Slope (n.) a piece of ground or a surface that is higher at one end than the other.
  • Immediately (adv.) without any delay.
  • Protest (v.) to do something to show publicly that you think something is wrong or unfair.
  • Surround by (v.) to be or go all round someone or something.
  • Cancel (v.) to decide that something you have planned will not happen.
  • Cancellation (n.) when someone decides they will not do something or something will not happen.
  • Decision (n.) a choice or judgment that you make.
  • Enrage (v.) to make someone very angry.
  • Escape (v.) to succeed in getting away from a place especially when someone is trying to catch you or stop you from leaving.
  • Pay for (v.) to give someone for something that you are buying from them, for work they have done.
  • Fee (n.) an amount of money that you pay for professional services or that you pay to do something.
  • Inclusive (adj.) an inclusive price or cost includes everything.
  • Hurt (v.) to make yourself or someone else feel pain.
  • Suppose (v.) used when saying what is expected or intended to happen, especially when it fails to happen.
  • Tough (adj.) difficult, physically strong and not easily frightened.
  • Embarrassed (adj.) feeling ashamed, stupid, or uncomfortable, especially when other people are watching or listening.
  • Consult (v.) to ask someone for advice or information or to look for it in a book, map. To ask for someone’s opinion or permission before deciding something.
  • Jeer (v.) to say rude things to someone or laugh at them.
  • Stay (v.) to continue to be in the same place and not leave.
  • Mumble (v.) to say something too quietly, or not clearly enough for someone to understand you.
  • Scowl (v.) to look at someone in angry way.
  • Eventually (adv.) after a long time.
  • Torrent (n.) a lot of something, a large amount of. Torrentially (adv.)
  • Leave(v.) to go away from a place or person.
  • Terrible (adj.) very bad or unpleasant.
  • Summit (n.) a meeting between the leaders of several governments.
  • Vibrate (v.) to shake or make something shake with small fast movements.
  • Reach (v.) to arrive at a place.
  • Crocodile (n.) a large tropical reptile that has along body and along mouth with sharp teeth, and lives in lakes and rivers.
  • Shin (v.) to produce light, to look bright and smooth.
  • Appear (v.) to seem, to begin to be seen.
  • Disappear (v.) to become impossible to see or find, to stop existing.
  • Dip (v.) to put something into a liquid and quickly lift it out again.
  • Main (n.) the most important thing in a situation.
  • Reason (n.) the fact that explains why something happens or exists.
  • Argue (v.) to clearly explain why you think something is true or should be done. To disagree with someone usually by talking or shouting in an angry way.
  • Argument (n.) a disagreement, especially one in which people talk loudly and angrily.
  • Return (v.) to come back or go back to a place.
  • Pour (v.) to make a liquid flow out of or into something.
  • Vehicle (n.) a thing such as a car or bus that is used for carrying people or things from one place to another.
  • Mud (n.) wet earth that is soft and sticky.
  • Sensible (adj.) showing good judgment.
  • Former (adj.) happening, existing or true in the past but not now.
  • Modify (v.) to make small changes to something in order to improve it.
  • Shade (n.) an area that is less warm and darker because the light of the sun cannot reach it.
  • Interested in (adj.) feeling that you want to give your attention to someone or something and find out more about them.
  • Discuss (v.) to talk about something with someone in order to exchange ideas or decide something.
  • Concept (n.) a general idea or principle.
  • Length (n.) how long something is from one end to the other.
  • Explain (v.) to make something clear or easy to understand by talking or written about it.
  • Grassland (n.) a large area of land covered with wild grass.
  • Sign (n.) a set of words or shapes in a public place that gives information for example directions or the name of a town.
  • Map (n.) a drawing of an area or country, showing rivers, roads, cities.
  • Describe (v.) to say what someone or something is like by giving details.
  • Adapt (v.) to change your behavior or ideas to fit a new situation. To change something so that it is suitable for a new need or purpose.
  • Wet (adj.) covered in water or another liquid.
  • Requirements (n.) something that is needed or asked for.
  • Natural (adj.) normal or usual, not made, caused or controlled by humans.
  • Reply (v.) to answer.
  • Wind (n.) a moving current of air near the ground.
  • Leaf (n.) one of the flat green parts of a plant that are joined to its stem or branches.
  • Sweat (n.) liquid that comes out through your skin, especially when you are hot or nervous.
  • Human (n.) a man, woman, or a child.
  • Nevertheless (adv.) in spite of what has just been mentioned.
  • Feast (n.) a large meal for a lot of people to celebrate a special occasion.
  • Whereas linking word used to compare two situations, things.
  • Health (n.) the state of being well, without disease.
  • Healthy (adj.) strong, not often ill, usually in good health.
  • Triangle (n.) a flat figure with three straight sides and three angles. Triangular (adj.)
  • Circle (n.) a flat rounded area enclosed by a curved line that is everywhere equally distant from one fixed point.
  • Circular (adj.) round, shaped like or nearly like a circle.
  • Fame (n.) the condition of being well known and talked about.
  • Famous (adj.) very well known.
  • Patience (n.) the quality of being patient.
  • Patient (adj.) having or showing the ability to bear long waiting, or anything unpleasant , calmly and without complaining. Patiently (adv.)
  • Persuade (v.) to cause to do something by reasoning, arguing, begging.
  • Persuasive (adj.) having the power to influence others to believe or do what one wishes. Persuasively (adv.)
  • Hero (n.) heroine (n.) a person remembered or admired for an act of bravery, strength or goodness. The most important character in a play, poem , story.
  • Heroic (adj.) showing the qualities of a hero.
  • Footprint (n.) a foot shaped mark made by pressing a foot onto a surface.
  • Fingerprint (n.) the mark of a finger especially as used in the discovery of crime.
  • Abstract (adj.) thought of as a quality rather than as an object or fact.
  • Against (prep.) in the direction of and meeting , in opposition to.
  • Logic (n.) the science of reasoning by formal methods, away of reasoning.
  • Invade (v.) too attack and spread into so as to take control of a country.
  • Leaflet (n.) a small sheet of printed matter usually given free to the public.
  • Shape (n.) the appearance or form of something.
  • Breath (n.) air taken into and breathed out of the lungs.
  • Breathe (v.) to take air into the lungs and send it out again.
  • Illustrate (v.) to add pictures to something written. To show the meaning of something by giving related examples.
  • Advise (v.) to tell somebody what one thinks should be done, give advice to somebody.
  • Advisable (adj.) sensible, wise.
  • Soul (n.) the part of a person that contains their deepest thoughts and feelings and which many people believe continues to exist after death.
  • Starve (v.) to become ill or die because you don’t have enough to eat, or make someone do this.
  • Starvation (n.) when someone becomes ill or dies because they don’t have enough to eat.
  • Nearby (adj.) not far away.
  • Pepper (n.) a hot-tasting powder made from seeds that is used in cooking.
  • Period (n.) a length of time .
  • Value (n.) the amount of money that something is worth.
  • Good-hearted (n.) having good and kind character.
  • Treat (v.) to behave towards someone in a particular way.
  • Season (n.) one of the four main periods in the year, winter, sprong, summer, or autumn.
  • Fasten (v.) to join together the two sides of something so that it is closed or to become joined together.
  • Express (v.) to tell people what you think or feel.
  • Rapid (adj.) done or happening very quickly.
  • Educate (v.) to teach someone especially in a school or college.
  • Educated (adj.) an educated person has a high standard of knowledge and education.
  • Education (n.) the process of learning or the knowledge that you get at school or college.
  • Precious (adj.) very important to you, valuable because of being rare.
  • Wrap (v.) to completely cover something by folding paper, cloth around it.
  • Attend (v.) formal to go to a meeting, school.
  • Spices (n.) parts of plants for example the seeds that is put into food to give it a special taste.
  • Stamp (n.) a small piece of paper that you buy and stick on a letter before you post it.
  • Post (v.) to send a letter or package by putting it in a post box or taking it to a post office, mail.
  • Transport (n.) a kind of vehicle, or a system of buses, trains that you use for going from one place to another.
  • Conversation (n.) an informal talk between two or more people.
  • Manager (n.) someone who is in charge of a bank, shop, or a group of people.
  • Create (v.) to make something new exist or happen.
  • Creator (n.) someone who makes or invents something.
  • Creation (n.) when someone makes something new exists or happen. Something new that someone makes especially using their imagination or skill.
  • Possess (v.) formal to own or have something.
  • Possession (n.) something that you own.

 

Student Book P.52

Imagine that someone has sent you the following e-mail or letter containing a number of questions about cultural differences between their country and your country. Read the text and make notes of possible answers to the questions. The questions are underlined.

 

I will arrive in your country on 14th June. A friend of my parents is meeting me at the airport. His wife and his daughter will be there to meet me, too. I’ve never met them. Should I shake hands with them?

I’m staying in a hotel, but I’m going to their house for dinner. Should I take some flowers or another kind of gift? If they tell me to be there at 8pm, should I arrive a little early or exactly on time? What should I wear when I visit them? Should I wear a suit and tie, or can I dress more casually?

Also, I think it’s their daughter’s birthday the day after I arrive. She’ll be 15. Would it be appropriate for me to buy her a present? What would you buy for a 15-year-old gir

 

 

 

The notes of your possible answers:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Write a short e-mail answering the questions.

 

 

From:

 

To :

 

Subject:

 

 

 

Student Book P.53

Reading 

Read the information and then answer the questions about birthdays in your country.

There are some birthday traditions that are common in many parts of the world- for example, birthday cakes, birthday parties, birthday presents and birthday cards.                                   The tradition of birthday cakes began with the Ancient Greeks, who made circular cakes and took them to the temple of their goddess of the moon, Artemis. The cakes were circular to represent the moon. The Greeks are said to have placed candles on the birthday cakes to make them glowing like the moon. In medieval Britain, birthday parties were held because people thought that evil spirits visited them on their birthdays. They stayed close to their families and friends for protection. It was the late nineteenth century when parties became social gatherings where friends and family would bring presents or flowers. The tradition of sending birthday cards started in England about 100 years ago. Originally, cards were sent as an apology when someone couldn’t visit in person.

 

On your birthday…

1-Do people in your country give and receive birthday presents?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2-If so, what kind of presents are typical for people of your age?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3-Do you send birthday cards?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4-If so, what messages do you write on them?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5-Do you have a party?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6-If so, what happens?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

7-Do you have a birthday cake?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

8-If so, what’s it made of?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

9-Do you put candles on the birthday cake?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

10-Are there any other special traditions on your birthday?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

Now read Happy Birthday? And answer this question. Where in the world do the following things happen on birthday?

 

Where in the world do the following things happen on birthdays?

1-A flag is flown outside your house.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2-people pull your ears.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3-They put butter on your nose.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4-The person whose birthday it is wears clothes of a particular colour.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5-the person whose birthday it is gives chocolates to everyone in their class.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6-They turn you upside down and bump you on the floor.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

7-The person whose birthday it is (and friends) wear blindfolds and hit a papier mâchéanimal with a stick.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

8-The person whose birthday it is has to dance in front of the rest of the class.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

Happy Birthday?

In some countries in Latin America, particularly in Argentina and Brazil, it’s a tradition to pull people’s ears on their birthday. They pull your earlobe once for each year of your life. In Ecuador, there is a special celebration for girls when they reach the age of fifteen. There is a big party and the girl wears a pink dress. The father dances the waltz with her and fourteen other girls and fourteen boys dance as well. In India, girls also wear brightly-coloured dresses and give chocolates to all students in their class.                                                                                                                In Ireland, there is a tradition called Birthday Bumps. On your birthday, friends lift you upside down and bump you on the floor for good luck. The number of bumps is your age, plus one for extra good luck.                                                                                                                                         You should avoid going to Canada on your birthday, where they grease your nose with butter or margarine! Canadians believe that a greasy nose means you are too slippery for bad luck to catch you.                                                                                                                                                     In Denmark, a flag is flown outside a house to indicate that someone who lives there is having a birthday. In Norway, you have to stand in front of your class and choose a friend to dance with you. While you dance, the rest of the class sings a birthday song.                                                             Finally, in Mexico, there is the tradition of the piñata. A piñata is a papier mâché animal which is filled with sweets and other small presents and hung from the ceiling. The birthday child and friends are blindfolded and they all hit the piñata with sticks until it breaks open. When the presents rain down on the floor, everyone scrambles to collect them.

 

Student Book P.56

 

 

Grammar

 

 

 

Stative and Dynamic Verbes

 

Verbs in English can be classified into two categories: stative verbs and dynamic verbs. Dynamic verbs (sometimes referred to as "action verbs") usually describe actions we can take, or things that happen. Stative verbs usually refer to a state or condition which is not changing or likely to change. The difference is important, because Stative verbs cannot normally be used in the continuous (BE + ING) forms. This will explain the differences between the two types of verb, and give lots of examples of each kind.

Dynamic verbs  can be used in the simple and perfect forms (plays, played, has played, had played) as well as the continuous or progressive forms (is playing, was playing, has been playing, had been playing).

Dynamic verbs

There are many types of dynamic verbs, but most of them describe activities or events which can begin and finish.

Here are some examples:

She plays tennis every Friday.
She's playing tennis right now.

The snow melts every spring.
The snow is melting right now.

 

 

 

Stative verbs

Stative verbs usually refer to a state or condition which is quite static or unchanging. They can be divided into verbs of perception or cognition (which refer to things in the mind), or verbs of relation (which describe the relationships between things). we CANNOT use these verbs in the continuous (progressive) forms; so it is always in the simple form.

 

Here are some examples:

She believes in UFOs.

I hate chocolate.

Here some common stative and dynamicverbs. The lists may help you to understand what types of verbs are likely to be stative and what types are commonly dynamic.

Stative Verbslove; hate; like; see; hear; sound; think (meaning "have an opinion"); mind (meaning "care about"); recognize; seem; have (meaning "own"); prefer; doubt; consist of; mean

Dynamic Verbseat; drink; go; type; read; write; listen; speak; watch; say; grow; work; sleep; cook; talk

 

 

 

 

Student Book P.57

 

Writing

You are going to write an opinion essay with the following title: Every society needs its own traditions. Here are some questions to help you:

· How do traditions make people feel?

·  What is your favourite tradition? What do you like about it?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………